# The Philosophy of Square-Root Cancellation

In this note, I’ll discuss why square-root cancellation is so typical in problems in number theory and give a quick survey of important sums known or widely conjectured to satisfy bounds of this form.

In this note, I’ll discuss why square-root cancellation is so typical in problems in number theory and give a quick survey of important sums known or widely conjectured to satisfy bounds of this form.

This post discusses two classic problems in analytic number theory: the Gauss circle problem and the Dirichlet divisor problem.

These problems are known to be related at a deep level, a fact which is often missed at first glance because the obvious/early attacks on them look quite different.

In this post, I compare these “trivial” estimates, and show how Gauss’ estimate can be realized using a few different techniques.

For many calculus students, Riemann sums are those annoying things that show up in the derivation of the arc length formula.

In truth, these handy sums have done so much more. In this post, I’ll give some examples of Riemann sums dating from before the birth of calculus and some applications of Riemann sums that are still used today.

One of the ingredients in a paper that Bram Petri and I submitted in 2016 was a count of integer matrices of determinant 1 with non-negative entries and bounded trace.

Our paper only required an upper bound, but as a number theorist I couldn’t resist the temptation of describing the asymptotics of this function more precisely. In this post we explore do just that, exploring Dirchlet’s hyperbola method along the way.

The Gauss Circle Problem is a classic open problem in number theory concerning the number of lattice points contained in a large circle.

Optimal error bounds are known in these approximations in a generalization of the Gauss Circle Problem to spheres in dimensions four and above.

In this post, I’ll give a purely analytic proof of this result for even dimensions greater than four, and explain why the method fails in the other cases.

Just how good are polynomials at producing primes? Do there exist polynomials that produce primes for arbitrarily many consecutive inputs?

In this post, I’ll give a brief overview of what we expect to be able to prove, and show how interpolating polynomials can produce record-breaking prime-generators. (And then break a record, because why not?)

Our modern calendar, the Gregorian calendar, introduced several changes to the Julian calendar, including the introduction of a three-step algorithm for determining leap years.

But just how accurate is the Gregorian model? Can centuries of mathematics and astronomy lead us to a more accurate calendar?

Classification theorems of Euler, Lagrange, and Legendre describe the sets of integers that can be written as the sum of 2, 3, and 4 squares. In the last two cases, it follows easily that the density of these sets are 5/6 and 1.

The question of density is not so simple in the case of two squares. In this post, we resolve using an unexpected tool — Dirichlet’s theorem on primes in arithmetic progressions.

John Wilson (1741-1793) was a well-known English mathematician in his time, whose legacy lives on in his eponymous result, Wilson’s Theorem.

In this post, we’ll generalize Wison’s Theorem to non-prime modulus (and a few other generalizations) and give credit to Gauss for beating us to it by two hundred years.

Back in high school, I came across the following contest problem – “What is the largest product of a set of positive integers totaling 20?”

It’s a fun problem, so don’t rush past the spoiler tags too fast. In this post, we’ll give the solution to this problem and discuss a “continuous” version of this question. Namely, what happens when we’re allowed to include real numbers in our product?